Recently, we published the paper Endophytic yeast protect plants against metal toxicity by inhibiting plant metal uptake through anethylene-dependent mechanism, the main author is Dr. Agnieszka Domka. The article describes how the presence of the fungus Sporobolomyces rubberimus has a protective effect on Arabidopsis arenosa. Co-culture of these two (as well as the Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with fungus) has been shown to inhibit Ni and Fe uptake. Studies have shown that the interference of microorganisms in plant ethylene homeostasis is necessary for the metal inhibition effect. Microorganisms have been shown to optimize Fe and Ni uptake by plants by fine-tuning metal homeostasis.